Şiran, also Karaca, is a town and district of Gümüşhane Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It is one of the points of passage between Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea regions of Turkey, in the sense that the western road departing from Erzincan towards the Zigana Pass (the key pass between the two geographies) has its last urban stop in Şiran. According to the 2010 census, population of the district is 17,600 of which 8,207 live in the town of Şiran. The district covers an area of 928km2 (358sqmi), and the town lies at an elevation of 1,457m (4,780ft).
The name comes from Persian and means "the lions", although it is most likely to be an adaptation of the former Greek name of Cheriana (Χερίανα) adopted after the Turkish settlement in the region after and possibly even slightly before the Battle of Manzikert.
Many of the northern villages of the district was home to minority populations of Pontic Greeks until the 1922 Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations, constituting the southern fringes of that community's extension. Some among the present population can also trace their roots to Greeks who had converted to Islam until as late as the end of the 19th century, as indicated by the Ottoman census and changed village names (for example, the present village of "Evren" was formerly called "Sefker").
Recent archaeological research has pushed back the date of the known origin of wine making in Persia far beyond that which writers earlier in the 20th century had envisaged. Excavations at the Godin Tepe site in the Zagros mountains (Badler, 1995; McGovern and Michel, 1995; McGovern, 2003), have revealed pottery vessels dating from c. 3100–2900 BC containing tartaric acid, almost certainly indicating the former presence of wine. Even earlier evidence was found at the site of Hajji Firuz Tepe, also in the Zagros mountains. Here, McGovern et al. (1996) used chemical analyses of the residue of a Neolithic jar dating from as early as 5400–5000 BC to indicate high levels of tartaric acid, again suggesting that the fluid contained therein had been made from grapes.
As book of Immortal Land Persian:سرزمین جاوید or Sar Zamin e Javid] (by Zabihollah Mansoori) says Ramian wines were world-famous in the Parthian Empire. Ramian Wine is now a California wine brand but Shiraz wines are famous across the globe.
However, there has been a debate asking for an alternative currency to US dollar...EconomistGita Gopinath argues that the global trade is ‘heavily invoiced’ in dollars which makes it a dominant currency ... Similarly, Russia and Iran discussed for introducing crypto currency backed up by gold for bilateral trade.
Iran and Russia are reportedly working together to establish a new gold-backed digital currency that will help each nation avoid sanctions imposed by the United States... Russia and Iran Have Formed a CryptoBond. Russia has allegedly reported that it wants to utilize the cryptocurrency to engage in bilateral trades with Iran.
Brown said the industry has "imploded," with the crypto market losing nearly $1.5 trillion last year ...Roger Marshall and I are reintroducing our anti-money laundering bill to clamp down on crypto crime and give regulators the tools they need to stop the flow of crypto to drug traffickers in places like North Korea and Iran," Warren said.
In order to mint the gold-backed currency, however, authorities would need to first regulate crypto assets, a lawmaker noted ...Russia and Iran, both under Western economic and financial sanctions, have been looking to crypto assets as a means to circumvent restrictions.
... crypto currency transactions in the year 2023 ... Status of Regulations for Crypto Currencies in Russia and Iran. Iran and Russia have passed laws preventing their citizens from utilizing crypto currencies such as Bitcoin (BTC) and other US Dollar stablecoins such as Tether (USDT).
In the advent of news that Iran had abolished its morality police unit, responsible for the arrest of Mahsa Amini, another false story emerged from a number of little-known crypto-currency outlets online, claiming that Iran was set to freeze the bank account of women who weren’t wearing the appropriate Islamic covering.
It is the largest penalty ever levied against a crypto currency exchange by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, the agency said ... It is the largest penalty ever levied against a crypto currency exchange by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, the agency said.
Crypto exchange Bittrex was fined USD 24 million by US authorities on Tuesday for helping clients evade US sanctions in places such as Syria, Iran and Crimea. It is the largest penalty ever levied against a crypto currency exchange by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, the agency said.
Bitcoin advocate arrested in Iran...Crypto regulations in Iran ... Crypto miners in Iran are subject to higher tariffs on electricity ... Iran approves the usage of crypto for importation Iran to legalize digital currencies for international trade Iran Used Crypto To Pay For $10 Million Worth Of Imported Goods.
The Central Bank of Iran (CBI) has reportedly begun a pilot for its central bank digital currency (CBDC), also known as “crypto rial.” Iran’s chamber of commerce explained that the ...Crypto rial refers to Iran’s central bank digital currency (CBDC).